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【UNABRIDGED EDITION!!】EXCERPTS from The Introduction on "The Old Testament PSEUDEPIGRAPHA

[10th,May, 2016]: "The Apocrypha of Daniel(Chs.1-14)"are now added at the bottom of the article in a Scroll Box.

In His First Coming, the Temple's High Priest has changed too frequently, if I remember correct, there were at least 4 High Priests during that period; And the change of Pope, but also in frequency of changes in any leadership of significant segments of society...

Also, I, too, agree with that Rabbi that Gog is likely to be the Uspresdnt , in which Russia is only the path to which the Gog is coming. If the time of this "Apocalypse of Daniel" was written parallels so much with what is to come in the end time, the finalruler theantichrist would plan is notamaleone. But, in the meantime, ...well.

It is from The Introduction on The Old Testament Apocrypha Volume I: "Apocalypse of Daniel". Mine is a paperback edition, and only this "volume I" has more than 2 inches thickness, so it is less coincidental to find this in just a few flipping away while I was checking 1- III Enoch, but couldn't find a specific issues I thought was in there, took me to "Apocalypse of Daniel". For the searching, I checked the "Introduction" instead of the text itself.

[Note: The Italics are as in the Text; The Underlines & Bold Letters are mine.]

The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Volume One:
Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments
1983, by James H. Charlesworth.
Hendrickson Publishes Marketing,
LLC.P.O.Box 3473,Peabody,
Massachusetts 12961-3473.

(Ninth Century A.D.)


In this present form the Apocalypse of Daniel is a comparatively late Byzantine apocalypse in which earlier traditions concerning the coming of the Antichrist and the end of the world are adapted to the particular historical situation of eighth-century Byzantium. Accordingly, the text may be divided into two major heterogeneous sections, the first of which (chs.1-7) is based upon the historical events of the Byzantino-Arab wars of the eighth century and their aftermath leading up to the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome in A.D.800, all of which the author relates in a cryptic manner and projects into the future as prophecies. The narrative leaves the historical sphere and enters the realm of apocalyptic with the beginning of the second and presents his own version of the end of the world as a direct continuation of the series of historical events described in chapters 1-7. The events of the last years of the world, which in this section also are recounted in the future tense as prophecies, are dominated by the figure of the Antichrist as well as his rise to power as king and messiah of the Jewish nation, which has been previously restored I Judea. His brief reign ---- characterised by the deterioration of nature, the persecution of Christians, an unsuccessful attempt at a miracle, and confrontations first with a dragon and then with three holy men ---- is brought to an abrupt end by the coming of the day of judgment and the appearance of Christ.


The text of the Apocalypse of Daniel is preserved complete in each of two manuscript and partially --- and in a much freer rendering ---- in a third. The complete texts are found in a fifteenth- or sixteenth century manuscript (MS M) in the School of Medicine at Montpellier, France (Nr.405, fols. 105r-15), and in a fifteenth-century manuscripts (MS B) in the Bodlean Library at Oxford (Codex Canonicianus Nr. 19, fols. 145-52). The partial text (MS V) is in the Bibliotheca Merciana in Venice (Marc. Grec. VII 22, fols. 14-16). The present translation is derived from photographs of manuscript B. This manuscript was published by V. Istrin in Otkrovenie Mefodie Patarskago I Apokrificheskie Vidienie Daniila (Moscow, 1897) pp. 145-50, but a re-examination of the photographs revealed numerous errors in Istrin’s edition, which reappeared recently in K. Berger’s Die griechische Daniel-Diegese.

Manuscript B is an extremely corrupt text with misspelled words in almost every line. The majority of these misspellings are obviously die to the confusion of the scribe ever various groups of Greek letters and diphthongs that during the course of the development if the language have come to be pronounced identically. Most of these misspellings or itacisms were corrected by Istrin and will receive no comment in the critical notes of the present translation. Other misspellings, omissions of words and phrases, and mistaken transcriptions by Istrin will be noted.

Original Language

There is no apparent reason why the original language of the Apocalypse of Daniel should be considered to be other than Greek. His assertion is supported by the use of the Greek Septuagint text for Old Testament quotations (4:14; 5:12; 11:11; 14:12) and for Semitic proper names (Hagar in 1:2f.; Ishmael in 1:4), as well as for the reference to the “flinty rock” in 13:8 (cf. Deut.8:15).

The case for Semitic sources for paths of the apocalyptic section (chs.8-14) would have to be built on such slight evidence as the occurrence of the odd Semitic place-name Gouzēth (9:7), which may be contrasted with the easily identifiable Greek place-name in chapter 1, and the Semitism “sons of men” (14:5). This phrase, although unique in this document, could still be explained as the influence of the Septuagint or possibly even of the New Testament.

Of interest also within this context is the confusion of the manuscripts over the three letters on the forehead of the Antichrist (9:25). While manuscripts M and V have readings that are easily understandable in Greek, manuscript B has the letters A K T; the scribe is obviously hard-pressed to explain their significance. This could suggest that this manuscript has observed the original letters from an earlier source. It is not inconceivable that his source was written in a different, possibly Semitic, language, this explaining an almost ridiculous attempt to elucidate the meaning in Greek of three letters transliterated from such a language as Aramaic or Syriac. However, for lack of more conclusive evidence, the most that can be said is only that these three examples ---- Gouzēth in 9:7, “sons of men” in 14:5, and the three letters on the forehead of the Antichrist is manuscript B (9:25) ---- could conceivably be faint traces f an earlier, possibly Semitic, source or sources that underlie the whole or parts of the apocalyptic section of the Apocalypse of Daniel.


The date of the present form of our apocalypse can be determined with some precision by identifying the last historical event to which it makes reference. This appears to be the transfer of the kingdom from Constantinople to Rome (7:14), which may with reasonable certainty be interpreted as an allusion to the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in Rome on Christmas Day, A.D. 800. This interpretation is supported by the description of the last Byzantine ruler before this event took place as a woman (6:10f), who corresponds to the historical figure of the Empress Irene, sole ruler of Byzantium from 797 to 802. It may therefore be concluded that the Apocalypse of Daniel was in all probability written between the early months of 801, allowing the time for the news of Charlemagne’s coronation to reach Byzantium, and the end of Irene's reign on October 31, 802.

The determination of the date of any possible earlier traditions and sources of the apocalyptic section would be extremely difficult and would have to depend on the identification of passages f the present apocalypse with those found in known earlier works. As will be seen below, the Apocalypse of Daniel, and especially its apocalyptic section, contains elements parallel to such early documents as the Sibylline Oracles ( books 3-5, 2nd cent., B.C. to 2nd cent., A.D.), 2 Baruch, 4 Ezra, and the Revelation of John( all later 1st cent., A.D.).

Furthermore, our apocalypse describe the conception of the Antichrist by a virgin who touches the head of a small fish into which the Antichrist has previously entered (ch.9). This account resembles a cryptic Christian inscription of the late second century on the tomb of Aberkios of Hierapolis, which depicts Christ as a fish that has been caught by a pure virgin. This parallel, in addition to those with the early pseudepigraphical works mentioned above, and incorporate some of them into his own work. It may be concluded, therefore, that the original date of certain elements of this apocalypse could be centuries earlier than that of the document as a whole and that some of them could fit into the apocalyptic environment that produced such works as the Sibylline Oracle, 2 Baruch, 4 Ezra, and the Revelation of John.


Berger's suggestion of a provenance on the Greek islands rather than in Byzantium itself, because of what he describes as the considerable role which the former play in the manuscripts of the apocalypse, does not seem to be well founded. The word nēsos(island) occurs only twice each in manuscripts M (2:15 ; 5:9) and V ( vss.34,36) and three times in manuscript B ( 5;9;11;8 twice). Such a paucity of references to the term "island" within a document could hardly warrant the conclusion of a provenance in the Greek islands. Even these few instances could perhaps be explained more satisfactorily as an example of the dependence of the Apocalypse of Daniel on the imagery of the Revelation of John (See "Relation to Canonical Books"), in which islands are which islands are mentioned three times (Rev. 1:9; 6:14; 16:20). Rather, the overwhelming concern f the apocalypse for the city of Constantinople, at least throughout the historical section, suggests that the "mother of cities"(7:11), Constantinople itself, is the place of origin.

The change in the overall character of the Apocalypse of Daniel in proceeding from the historical to the apocalyptic section is also apparent in the corresponding geographical shift from Greek Byzantium to Hebrew Judea. This probably reflects the distinctive provenance of the supposed earlier sources of the apocalyptic section, but to determine this provenance with any degree of certainty would be most difficult. Aside from the references to Judea (8:1) and Jerusalem ( 8:5; 9:14), the only other geographical clue is the place-name Gouzēth (9:7), which Berger explains as the transcription of Kush, the Semitic name for Ethiopia. He concludes, however, that it is more satisfactorily identified as Egypt by a literary parallel occurring in another Christian apocalyptic work. At any rate, on the basis of such meager information the most that can be said is that the provenance f the hypothetical sources of the apocalyptic section is perhaps in a Semitic rather than a Greek environment; Palestine and possibly Egypt are suggested by reference in the text.

Historical Importance

In its present form, the Apocalypse of Daniel has significance mainly within the context of late eighth century Byzantine history. The author describes three Byzantine rulers, the first very favourably and the last two in a derogatory manner. The first emperor, as described in chapters 3-5, has characteristics of both Leo III (717-41) and his son Constantine V (741-75); but he is probably to be identified with the latter. Both Leo III and Constantine V are notorious in Byzantine history, the former as the initiator and the latter as the most zealous proponent of the iconoclastic movement, which literally shook Byzantium in its very foundations for over a century until it was finally defeated in A.D. 842. On the contrary, the last two rulers, who are described so unfavourably in chapter6, correspond to Leo V (775-80) and Irene (797-802 as sole ruler), both of whom in varying degree opposed the iconoclasts. Irene, in fact, convened the Seventh Ecumenical Synod which met at Nicaea 787 and officially reinstated the veneration of icons and condemned iconoclasm as heresy, acts for which she was later canonized by the Orthodox Church.

The extreme favouritism of the author of the Apocalypse of Daniel toward Constantine V and his obvious dislike of Leo IV an Irene perhaps betray his own iconoclastic tendencies. These, however, he never states in this work, possibly out of fear, since he probably wrote during Iren's reign after the decision of the Seventh Ecumenical Synod. Thus, a supporter of iconoclasm, writing at a time when his party was apparently defeated by what must have seemed to him as a heretic empress, could have viewed this development in connection with the rise of a new political power under Charlemagne as the beginning of a series of events that were expected to take place at the end of the world. Accordingly, the author drew upon earlier traditions and sources dealing with the last days and composed his own version of what was supposed to follow in the near future. If this hypothesis is correct, it would explain the sudden leap in the story line of Apocalypse of Daniel from Byzantine political scene in 801 to the apocalyptic narrative concerning the Antichrist and the last days of the world.

Theological importance

Since the Apocalypse of Daniel is historically and politically oriented, there is relatively little theological material contained in it. God appears mainly when he intervenes in the political or military history of nations, as for example in chapter 3, in which he determines the outcome of the Byzantino-Arab wars (cf.6:9 and 7:11); but he is also responsible for the abundance of fruits of the earth in peacetime (5:16). Men also is shown chiefly in political and military situations; but in the sphere of religion he is divided into two camps according to faith: The Roman Christians and the misbelievers (especially the Arabs and Jews). World history is presented as proceeding toward a final "judgment and recompense"(14:14), but exactly what is to follow is not specified beyond a single statement concerning the flowering of Christ as “Lord and king of glory" (14;16). There is only one mention of an angel in 3:7, but this verse could be dependent on the imagery contained in chapter 16 of the Revelation of John (see "Relation to Canonical Books"). As far as can be ascertained from the description of the sinful rulers in chapter 6 and from the account of liturgical degeneration in chapter 2:5-8, the ethics of the apocalypse seem to be along the traditional lines that would be expected in a mediaeval Christian work.

The most important single theological aspect of the Apocalypse of Daniel ---- and which significantly seems to belong to the earlier underlying sources ---- is a relatively complex dualism centering on the figure of the Antichrist, who is the leader of the final assault by the forces of evil against Christians. Jews (ch.11), demons (ch.12), and even nature itself (chs.11:5-11; 12:9-13) take part in this great persecution, while the whole affair is summarily described as "the deception of the devil" (14:15). Given in chapter 9 are important details about the origin of the Antichrist as well as a bizarre description of his person. The "theology" of the Antichrist as presented in this apocalypse is completed by the addition, in the last two chapters, of the accounts of his unsuccessful attempt at a miracle and and his confrontation with three holy men leading up to his final downfall, which coincides with the coming of the day of judgment and the appearance of Christ.

Relation to canonical books

Except for such scattered references to biblical books in 1:1 (Mk 13:7-8, and parallels), 4:14(Deut.32:30); 5:12 (Isa.2:4); 9:9f.(2Thes.2:3); 11:11(Prov.11:32); 14:9(Heb.11:38), and 14:12(Ps.51:19), the Apocalypse of Daniel seems to be primarily dependent on the imagery and language of the Revelation of John. In fact, the overall framework of this apocalypse is reminiscent of the sixth and seventh bowls of God's wrath described in Revelation 16:12-21 and of the fall of the great harlot Babylon portrayed in chapters 17 and 18. In revelation 16:12 we find the idea that the Euphrates River will dry up so that the way of the kings of the East may be prepared. Similarly, in the Apocalypse of Daniel 1:2 a bush that restrains the three sons of Hagar also dries up, and according to 1:3 these three figures that enter Babylonia, the area around the Euphrates River. In Revelation 16:13-16 three unclean spirits go forth to gather the nations of the world to the great final battle of Armageddon. This brings to mind the three armies left by the three sons of Hagar against Byzantium, where they engage in the great war with the savior-king and his two small boys (chs.1-4).

  A significant parallel may be seen at the climax of the attack by the respective forces of evil in each of the narratives in question. In both cases very similar statements occur concerning sounds and voices from heaven and a great earthquake, which seems to signal the turning point in the battle (Rev. 16:17f.; ApDan 3:7). Finally, the description of the great harlot Babylon in Revelation (chs.16-18) is obviously the prototype of the references to Babylon in our apocalypse (7:2, 5, 11). This is verified by similarities even in details such as the seven hills of the city Babylon (Rev. 17:9; ApDan 7:2,5) and the woes pronounced upon this city (Rev. 18:10,16,19; ApDan 7:2,5,11).

Aside from the possibility that the historical structure of the Apocalypse of Daniel is dependent on the succession of events described in chapters 16-18 of the Revelation of John, there also seem to have been a certain amount of borrowing of specific images. For example, Revelation 14:20 presents the image of blood as deep as the bridles of horses, and the Apocalypse of Daniel 4:8 portrays horses as being submerged and drowning in blood. According to Revelation 9:6 men will seek death and desire to die, and according to our apocalypse 12:4f, people will be calling on death and will be blessing those who have already died. The drying up of all greenery, trees, and flowers, and the description of the earth as being like copper according to the Apocalypse of Daniel 12:9-11 could be a reflection of the burning of one third of the trees and green grass on the earth that is depicted in Revelation 8:7. Finally, a striking parallel image in the two documents is the description in Revelation 6:15f. of the kings of the earth and magnates among others, hiding themselves in the caves and the rocks of the mountains and calling on the mountains and rocks to fall on them. This seems to be reproduced in the Apocalypse of Daniel at 2:15, where it is written that rulers and magnates will "flee to the glens of the mountains" and in 12:6 (MS M only), where it is said that people will entreat and beg the mountains to cover them.

Finally, there are a number of parallel phrases and terms in the two works that would support a dependence of the Apocalypse of Daniel on the Book of Revelation. The most outstanding of these are the phrases "sand of the sea" used to describe the multitudes of the enemy in our apocalypse at 12:1 (cf. Rev. 13:8). The terms "mountains" and “islands" are used together twice in Revelation (6:14; 16:20), while appearing also together in the present apocalypse at 5:9 and separately at 1:9; 2:15, 17; 11:8; and 14:9. Also of interest are the similes of the mourners of fallen Babylon as sailors in Revelation 18:17-19 and merchants in 18:3, 11, and 15. Sailors will lament over fallen Babylon according to the Apocalypse of Daniel 7:13, merchants will do likewise according to 7:14 (MS M only). Each of these parallel terms and phrases would seem insignificant alone. However, when viewed together and in connection with the previously discussed similarities of historical structure and imagery, they strongly indicate a dependence of the Apocalypse of Daniel on the Revelation of John.

Relation to apocryphal books

The Apocalypse of Daniel is only one of a considerable number of similar apocalypses that are strangely reminiscent of the early Jewish pseudepigraphical works. That the Apocalypse of Daniel either influenced or was influenced by one or more of these contemporary documents cannot be doubted, as this is evidenced by several example of direct dependence. It is beyond scope of this introduction, however, to examine this matter in more detail. The most that will be done will be to point out some of the most significant parallel between this apocalypse and some earlier pseudepigrapha.

The reference to the king of Romans by the initial letter of his name (ApDan 3:12) could stem from Sybilline Oracles 5.1-51, in which most of the Roman Emperors from Julius Caesar to Mercus Aurelius are identified by the numerical value twenty, as is the case with the Roman king mentioned in the Apocalypse of Daniel 3:12. It should be noted that this apocalypse follows the motif of the Sybilline Oracles as opposed to that used in the Revelation of John 13:18, in which the figure represented by the second beast is identified by the number 666, the sum of the numerical values of all the letters of his name. In view of the probable dependence of this apocalypse on Revelation, as discussed in the preceding section, the method for denoting emperors could indicate that this particular element is borrowed from another source, possibly the Sibylline Oracles.

Another concept of the Sibylline Oracles worthy of note in relation to the Apocalypse of Daniel is that found in Book 3, 75-77, in which a woman is described as the last ruler before the end of the world. This idea accords with 6:10f. of our apocalypse, which also presents a woman as the last ruler of the "Seven-hilled" city in an eschatological context (cf. Rev. 17). The similarity between the two texts is strengthened by the appearance in both of a malevolent figure who will deceive people, especially the Jews. In Sibylline Oracles 3.63-69 the deceiver is Beliar, or Satan, and in our apocalypse the later chapters are concerned with the Antichrist, who will deceive the Jews into worshipping him as the Messiah.

A final motif of the Sibylline Oracles present also in the Apocalypse of Daniel is that expressed in 3:10 and concerns the saviour-king of the Romans, "who people say is dead and useful for nothing, who people think died many years before." This is apparently a reference to the early Nero redivivus legend, which found its way repeatedly into the Sibylline Oracles (e.g. 4.119, 138f. 5.33f. 101-7, 137-54) and is implied in Revelation 13:3. The essential difference between the use of this motif in the Sibylline Oracles and Revelation on the one hand and in the Apocalypse of Daniel on the other is that in the former two works it refers to the monstrous figure of Nero as an enemy of the people of God, and in the present apocalypse it is applied to the savior-king sent by God.

Chapter 10 of the Apocalypse of Daniel contains an interesting description of the fruitfulness of the earth just prior to the rise to power of the Antichrist. The phraseology in 10:3f. includes vine branches, grape clusters, and individual grapes; this cluster of images is strongly reminiscent of what R.H. Charles referred to as a "fragment of an old Apocalypse recorded in I Enoch 10:19, 2 Baruch 29:5, and later by Papias through the quotation preserved in Irenaeus, Contra haereses 5.33.3. Exactly which of these documents was the source of the parallel passage serves to demonstrate that the author of the Apocalypse of Daniel did at least take into consideration much earlier sources and in this particular case interpolated, although not without modification, early apocalyptic material into his own work.

Another possible case of the insertion of foreign material into the Apocalypse of Daniel may perhaps be seen in chapter 13, which concerns an unsuccessful attempt by the Antichrist to turn a stone into bread in the presence of his Jewish worshippers. There appear to be elements from another tradition interwoven into the fabric of this chapter. This is indicated by the use of two different Greek words ---- lithos (stone) in verses 1 and 2, and petra (rock) in verse 8 and 10 ---- to describe the stone. Furthermore, the verses in which the term petra is located (vss.8-13) stand apart from the rest of chapter 13 and from the apocalypse as a whole in two significant ways. First, these verses are written as a block in the present tense as opposed to the rest of the document, which, except for a very few scattered instances, is in the future tense. Secondly, verses 8-13 relates a series of events that are theologically incompatible with the Book of Revelation, which has been shown to be a major source of the imagery in our apocalypse.

Verses 8-13 describe the Antichrist commanding a “flinty rock” to become bread in order to impress the Jews. Instead, the rock becomes a dragon as an enemy of the Antichrist is contrary to the portrayal of the dragon (Satan) in Revelation 13:2, 4, 11; and 16:13 as an ally of the two bestial Antichrist figures described in Revelation 13. The linguistic evidence of the two different Greek words for the stone used in the two sections of chapter 13, the grammatical peculiarity of the second section being in the present tense, and the theological incompatibility of this section with the main source of the imagery of the apocalypse as a whole, the Book of Revelation, would indicate that verses 8-13 of chapter 13 of the Apocalypse of Daniel are based on material originating from another source. The closest parallel to the imagery presented in these verses may be found in 4 Ezra 5:5, in which a stone is also said to “utter its voice” within an eschatological context closely resembling the woeful times preceding the end of the world as presented in the last chapters of the Apocalypse of Daniel.

Finally, and of particular interest in connection with the relation of the Apocalypse of Daniel to other apocryphal works, is the suggestion made by W. Bousset concerning the existence of a now lost apocalypse dealing with the Antichrist, which was entitled, according to Bousset, the Apocalypse of Daniel. Even more interesting is the possibility raised by Bousset that this lost apocalypse was used as a source by the third-century Christian Father Hippolytus, thus bringing the date of this hypothetical document to a period approaching that of the early pseudepigrapha. An investigation of the possibility of the existence of such a document and its relation to the other mediaeval apocalypses would perhaps clear up many of the questions concerning the sources of the apocalyptic material preserved in the Apocalypse of Daniel.

Cultural Importance

The present Apocalypse of Daniel was until very recently accessible only through the manuscripts themselves or through Istrin's rare edition of 1897, and then only to those with a knowledge of Greek. Berger's publication in 1976 made it available in German, while the present translation is the first appearance of this document in English. Under such circumstances the Apocalypse of Daniel can hardly be said to have exercised any significant influence on our culture. However, certain concepts embodied in this and similar Byzantine works, although originally intended for one specific period of history, have lived on through the popular beliefs and aspirations of those nations that have identified the Byzantine spiritual tradition.

As the centuries passed, the Turks replaced the Arabs as the "sons of Hagar" and the "Ishmaelites" and became the relentless enemies of the Orthodox nations of the Balkans and eastern Europe. The Ottoman Empire eventually enveloped all these peoples, except the Russian, and took the "Seven-hilled" city of Constantinople in 1453. The subsequent decline of the Turkish Empire was paralleled by the emergence of Russia as a world power and later by the establishment of such independent and restive Balkan states as Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Romania. Thus was created a political situation reminiscent of eighteen century Byzantium, with free Orthodox nations again in conflict with the "sons of Hagar."

A new significance was acquired by the old Byzantine apocalypses that told of a Roman king named Constantine who would defeat the Ishmaelites and drive them away from the "Seven-hilled" city. This concept was especially tantalizing to the Russians, who considers themselves to be the inheritors of the Roman sovereignty after the fall of the Byzantine Empire. The Russian rulers were called czars after the Caesar and Moscow was the Third Rome --- after classical Rome and the New Rome, which was the official title of Constantinople. The centuries long struggle of Rome to gain strategic access to the Mediterranean Sea also took on the nature of a holy war to liberate the old Byzantine imperial city of Constantinople, which happened to sit astride the Bosporus, the natural gateway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

Catherine the Great went so far as to christen her second grandson Constantine in 1779, as part of a plan to drive the Turks out of the Balkans and Asia Minor and to reestablish the Byzantine Empire with her grandson as its ruler in Constantinople. The Romanov dynasty also pursued an aggressive foreign policy against the Turks throughout the nineteenth century. This culminated in World War I with the secret treaty of the Allies awarding Constantinople to Russia after victory. The Russian Revolution of 1917 intervened, however, and Russia withdrew from the wars and struggles. At any rate, this interest of the Russians in mediaeval apocalyptic traditions explains the appearance in the late nineteenth century of collections of Byzantine apocalypses in Russian editions, such as that of Istrin and the Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina of A. Vassiliev, which appeared in Moscow in 1893.

The influence of mediaeval apocalyptic traditions may also be seen in the case of modern Greece. The Greeks were the first of the Balkan peoples to achieve their independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830 and have added traditional Greek territories to their state roughly every generation since that time at the expense of the ever-dwindling Turkish Empire. The old prophecies concerning a king named Constantine who would drive the Turks from Constantinople seemed to be coming true in the early 1920s when indeed King Constantine XII (twelfth in line from Constantine the Great) ruled Greece at a time when a Greek army of occupation had landed in Asia Minor and was moving eastward. Although the expedition failed and the Greeks were driven out of Asia Minor, there can be little doubt that the ancient popular traditions had played s not inconsiderable role in the foundation of the Greek war plans. Even today the belief is widespread among the Greek people, as the only remaining free Orthodox nation, the someday a Constantine well accomplish the reconquest of the “Queen of cities,” which has until now eluded their grasp. The examples of Russia and Greece serve to demonstrate how Byzantine apocalyptic traditions, if not such works throughout the centuries and continue to have the potential to do so.

Apocalypse of Daniel Chs. 1-14[全章]

The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha 
volume I

Apocalypse of Daniel


  According to the God-spoken word which says: "When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, nation will fight against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, earthquakes, plagues and deviations of stars. " Then the bush which restrains the sons of Hagar will dry up. And three sons of Hagar will go forth into great Babylonia, (whose) name(s are) Ouaches and another Axiaphar, and the third Morphosar. And Ishmael will come down the reign of the land of swift passage. And he will establish his camp in Chalcedon across from Byzantium. And the other one will come to Antioch, Chilicia, and Iberian Anatolia, the Thrakysan country and Smyrna and as far as the Seven-hilled (city). And he will spill Roman blood. And another will come to the region of Persia and (to) the Galilean country, the Armenian border, and the city of Trebizond. And he will come to the region of the land of the Meropes. And he will massacre male children from two and three years old and younger. And he will consume them by the sword. And the third one will come down the regions of the north and Mesiaspolis and Synopolis, and Zarichos, the regions of Chrysiapetra, and the well-lit valley and Bithynia, and of Daphnousia, Chrysioupolis, and Damoulion and as far as the Seven-hilled (city).


  And therefore all these (will) slaughter an infinite multitude of Romans from two and three years old and younger. And they will gather together toward the sea. And in their ships (will be) a myriad myriads. And these will be other infinite and innumerable multitudes. And in that place many will deny our Lord Jesus Christ and the holy gifts and will follow the apostates. And every sacrifice will cease from the churches. And the liturgy of God will be mocked. And the priests will be as laymen. And Ishmael will cry over against out with a great voice, boasting and saying, "Where is the God of the Romans? There is no one helping them, for we have defeated them completely." For truly the three sons of Hagar will roar against the Romans. And they will cross over against the Seven-hilled (city) toward Byzantium. And conferring, they will say (among) themselves, "Come and let us make a bridge in the sea with boats and transport horses for ourselves to Byzantium, the Seven-hilled (city)" But the rulers of the Romans and the magnates of the Seven-hilled (city) will flee to the glens of mountains. And there will be fear and affliction. And there will be much necessity of the mountains. And the people of the Seven-hilled (city) will be afflicted by the sword. Woe, woe then. How will the orthodox faith of the Christians and the invincible power of the honourable and life-giving cross be overcome?"


  But hear, brethren, that because of their iniquity God forbears. And the first will set up his couch across from Byzantium. And he will strike and they will be stricken. And then the rulers of the Romans blaspheme, saying, "Woe, woe, neither in heaven do we have a king nor on the earth." And with this word the Lord will incline his mercy toward the Romans and toward their revenge and will repay justice to his enemies. And there will be a great sound from heaven and a fearful earthquake and a voice from the angel from heaven. Ad the Lord will incline his head and will set his fury against the sons of Hagar and upon the feet of Ishmael. And the Lord will lift up the cowardice of the Romans and put (it) into the hearts of Ishmael, and the courage of the Ishmaelites into the hearts of the Romans. And the Lord will raise up a king of the Romans, who people say is dead and useful for nothing, who people think died many years before. The Lord is reserving this man in the outer country of Persia. This (is) his name: that which (begins with) the letter K of the alphabet. And this man is coming to the Seven-hilled city toward the evening. And he will prepare for his enemies. And on Saturday morning, as the sun rises, he will engage in a great war with the nation and the sons of Hagar, both he and the two boys. And the rulers of the Romans will gather together in Byzantium. Then even the priests of the Roman and the bishops and abbots who are found will bear weapons of war.


  And when he has gathers those together with (the) two small boys, that king also will join in a mighty war with the nation of the sons of Hagar. And he will massacre them like the grass of a reed being burned by fire. And from their blood a three-year-old bull will drown. And the king alone will pursue a thousand and the two small boys myriads. And Ishmael and the sons of Hagar will be butchered to the end. And there will be war and great bloodshed such as has not been since the foundation of the world. The blood will be mixed in the sea one and a half miles. And in the streets of the Seven-hilled (city) horses will be submerged, drowning in the blood. And from that nation and from Ishmael there will remain only three tents of men. And (the) sons of Ishmael will serve the Romans to the end will serve the chief donkey drivers of the Seven-hilled (city for) thirty years. And the nature of Ishmael in the sword and in captivity is more bitter and more grievous beyond that of the Romans. And the Roman race will desire to see a trace of Ishmael and will not find (it). And then the prophetic word will be fruitful (that says): “How will one pursue a thousand and two remove myriads unless the Lord God rejected them and the Lord gave them over?”


And the king of Romans will subdue every enemy and adversary under his feet. And the sceptre of that king will be long lived, likewise (that) of the two small boys. And his fame will go forth from the east and the west. And there will be one empire. And no one will resist him because this man has come from God and he will cause all war to cease. And there will be great peace. And every city and fortresses will be built. And there will be many altars acceptable to God in all the civilized world. And all the islands and the mountains will be inhabited. And the bread and the wine and the olive oil and the gold and and the silver will increase in all the earth. And the king will cause all hostility to cease upon the earth. And they will make their weapons into scythes. And his reign will be (for) thirty-six years. And the rulers of the Romans will desire to join in war but will not find (it). And all the perimeter(s) of the earth will fear them. And that king will glorify God because in his reign God gave to him the good things of the earth which he did not give since the foundation of the world. And the king will fall asleep in peace. And his two small boys will be taken up in peace after thirty-three years.


And after him there will arise from the north another king. And working great impurities and many injustices, he will also work great iniquities. And he will couple mother and son and brother and sister. And he will bring the monks out of the holy monasteries and will join the monasteries together and will cause the nuns to lie with his nation. And he will work great transgressions. Woe, woe then (to) the Christian race. Woe to those who are pregnant. And the priests of God also will cease. And the Lord God will call fire from heaven and will consume them. And after him a foul and alien woman will reign in the Seven-hilled (city). And she will settle on the southern side of the Seven-hilled (city).


And therefore woe (to) the Christian race. And woe to you, Seven-hilled Babylon, because the Byzantium of God will flee from you. And your holiness and your temples will flee from you. And your glory will fall. And woe to you, Seven-hilled Babylon, the new Byzantium. And woe to you, the Christian race. Again (there will be) an inroad of nations, again fear (among) the Romans, again slaughters and disturbances (for) the Romans nation. Churches will be destroyed. The faith has been dissolved. Women conceive the babies of misbelievers. And therefore woe to you, wretched Babylon, the mother of cities, because God will incline his wrath which emits fire. And your high walls will fall. And there will remain in you only one pillar of Constantine the Great, so that they who sail the sea may lament there. And furthermore the kingdom will be taken up from him and will be given to Rome.


And another great sceptre will arise from Judea. And his name (is) Dan. Ad then the Jews, the implacable Hebrew race, who are dispersed into cities and countries, will be gathered together. And they will be gathered together there. And they will come into Jerusalem toward their king. And they will afflict the Christian race in all the earth. Woe, woe, good people.


With him reigning, the Antichrist will go forth from the lower regions and the chasms of Hedes. And he will come into a small garidion fish. And he is coming in the broad sea. And he will be caught by twelve fishermen. And the fishermen will become maddened toward each other. One will prevail over them, whose mane (is) Judas. And he takes that fish for his inheritance and comes into a place named Gouzeth and there sells the fish for thirty silver pieces. And a virgin girl will buy the fish. Her name (is) Injustice because the son of injustice will be born from her. And her surname will be Perdition. For the touching the head of the fish she will become pregnant and will conceive the Antichrist himself. And he will be born from her (after) three months. And he will suckle (from) her (for) four months. He comes into Jerusalem and becomes a false teacher. And he will appear quiet and gentle and guileless. The height of his stature (will be) fifteen feet. And the hairs of his head (will reach) as far as his feet. And he (will be) large and three-crested. And the track of his feet (will be) large. His eyes (will be) like the star which rises in the morning, and his right (eye will be) like a lion’s. His lower teeth (will be) iron and his lower jaw diamond. And his right arm (will be) iron and his left copper. And his right hand (will be) four and a half feet (long). (He will be) long-faced, long nosed, and disorderly. And he also has upon his forehead three letters: A, K, T. And the A signifies “I deny,” the K: “And I completely reject,” the T: “The befouled dragon.” And the Antichrist will be teaching and being taught.


At that time there will be an abundance of grain and wine and olive oil such as has not been since the foundation of the world. And in those times the ear will pour out a half measure of grain. And the vine branch will put out a hundred grape clusters. And the grape clusters will bear ten thousand (grapes) and will pour out a hundred measures. And the seed of the olive tree will be complete. And produce her fruits a hundredfold.


And the Jewish nation and the Jerusalemites will take counsel saying, “Come, let us make this admirable man king.” And they make him king and crown him (after) three days. And he will reign (for) three years. And in is first year all the grass upon the earth will fail. And in the whole world there will not be found a half measure of grain or a half jar of wine nor other fruit. Then there will be a mighty plague. And those on the mainland will flee to the islands and those on the islands to the mainland. And for a time a manner of disease will be upon the whole earth and a great plague which has never occurred until that era. And the people will be deadened. If the just man is barely saved, how will the sinner appear?


And then the unclean spirits and the demons will go forth like the sand of the sea, those in the abyss and those in the crags and ravines. And they will adhere to the Antichrist and they also will be tempting the Christians and killing the babies of the women. And they themselves will suckle from them. And then the people will be calling upon death and digging up the tombs and saying, “Blessed and thrice blessed are you who have already died, because you did not reach these days. And they who go down to the sea also (will be) saying, “May the furies of your waves swallows also, O holy sea." And then all flesh of the Romans will lament. And whole there will ne temporary joy and exultation of the Jews, (there will be) affliction and oppression of the Romans from every necessity of the evil demons. And the earth will become like copper. And all greenery will dry up. And every tree and every flower upon the earth will fail. And the lakes and the rivers and the wells will dry up. And the moisture of the waters will completely dry up.


And the Antichrist will lift up a stone in his hands and say, “Believe in me and I will make these stones (into) bread.” And then (the) Jews will worship (him), who are saying, “You are Christ for whom we pray and on account of you the Christian race has grieved us greatly.” And then the Antichrist will boast, saying to the Jews, “Do not be grieved thus. A little (while and) the Christian race will see and will realise who I am.” And the Antichrist lifts up (his) voice toward the flinty rock, saying, “Become bread before the Jews.” And disobeying him, the rock becomes a dragon. And the dragon says to the Antichrist, “O you who are full of every iniquity and injustice, why do you do things which you are not able?” And the dragon shames him before the Jews.


And then three men will go forth and will condemn him (as) a liar and a deceiver. And these three men, two from heaven and one from the earth, also walk before the Antichrist and say, “Woe to you, O worker of injustice and inheritor of eternal fire.” And they will walk in all the earth, crying out and saying t the afflicted Christians, “Hear, O sons of men, and do not worship him, because he is not the Christ nor a God-fearing man, but he is the Antichrist.” And many Christians will run to the feet of the saints and say, “What shall we do, O saints?” Where shall we Christians hide?” And many of the Christians will hide in the mountains and caves and in the holes of the earth (and) will be saved, so that the treacherous Samuel might not seize them. And when the Antichrist finds these three men he will kill them by the sword. Then that spoken by the prophet David will be fulfilled: “Then they will offer up bulls upon your altar. And vanities against the Christians, the great day of the Lord draws near. And there will be judgment and recompense. And the deception of the devil will fall. And the light of the world, Christ our Lord and king of glory, will flower, to whom is due all glory and honour and dominion forever. Amen.

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